Colloidal silica has no ionic properties, but has a relatively large size and can be effectively removed by fine mechanical methods like Ultrafiltration (UF). This reaction works on hardness causing minerals such as calcium and magnesium, creating flakes of these minerals. Lime softening utilizes the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) to remove hardness (calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate) ions by precipitation.13 Aug 2012. To extract water from silica gel which has adsorbed the water from moist air . When you drink silicon-rich mineral water aluminium throughout the body is gathered up into the blood and then excreted through the urine. Often known for being a hard and glassy mineral substance, this element can be found in numerous forms including sand, quartz, and granite. If you want your nails, skin, and hair to be healthy, turn to silica. Colloidal silica has no ionic properties, but has a relatively large size and can be effectively removed by fine mechanical methods like Ultrafiltration (UF). In the absence of bivalent cations in the feed water, silica and silica-derived precipitants are limiting factors in high-recovery reverse osmosis operations. The procedure is demonstrated and materials needed are shown. allergic reactions, for example rash and swelling of the face. These flakes then absorb silica. Continuing to refer to the process shown in FIG. FIJI Water’s pH is 7.7. An ion exchange can remove silica as long as it has the correct resin base. This method is based on the reaction of calcium hydroxide (lime) with the silica colloids. Valves and piping should be corrosion-resistant as well such as Aquamatic valves with PVC or Rubber-lined face piping. Very neat design and comes with all the components I need for a smooth operation. In what way and in what form does silicon react with water? Data from French cohort have demonstrated that aluminium in drinking water seems to have a deleterious effect and increased the risk of cognitive impairment when the silica concentrations were low. Reddit. Ion Exchange Resin manufacturers have developed a strong-base anion exchange resin for this particular application and it is quite effective that it can reduce the Ionic Silica into parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. Dissolved silica is best removed through reverse osmosis, while colloidal silica is best removed through ultrafiltration. SILICA REMOVAL. Lime softening is one of the most common methods for removing silica from water such as make up to cooling towers, make up to boilers or boiler blow down water. Reverse osmosis is very successful at removing silica because its tight membrane is separated from the water. The silica is easy to get rid of -- a filter will do the trick. Quick Answer: Do Termites Eat Hardwood Floors? 6th Feb, 2012. Share . Ionic Silica is a very weak acid that is why it is removed by a Hydroxide-based cycle almost completely. Take silica in an beaker & heat it at 110 deg. 1, magnesium oxide, a sparingly soluble magnesium compound, is injected into the Magnesium Dissolution Reactor 18 and mixed with the produced water. SBAs like the A400E remove all anionic contaminants present. Valves and piping should be corrosion-resistant as well such as Aquamatic valves with PVC or Rubber-lined face piping.[/custom-features]. Reverse osmosis will also remove silica by 90-98%. Does your industrial facility need to remove silica from its feed water? Some chemicals are known, Do bed bugs have a natural enemy? Lime softening is one of the most common methods for removing silica from water such as make up to cooling towers, make up to boilers or boiler blow down water. Any water with high silica content is also a threat to efficiency of Heat Exchanger in Cooling Water systems. You can take a simple cloth or scrubbing pad to start the wiping of the glass. It’s important to understand that silica in a water supply … There are multiple treatment options available for removing silica from water. Techniques which rely on ionic charge, such as ion-exchange and continuous deionization, have very little impact on removal of colloidal silica. The first is that drinking silicon water does remove aluminum from the body. How do I reduce silica in my boiler water? How to remove silicon from water. There are pottery tools specifically designed for ceramics. Water softeners don’t remove it and carbon filters don’t remove it, neither do Iron filters or cartridge filters! There are 2 forms of Silica in water, colloidal silica and ionic silica. Question: Is Monthly Pest Control Necessary? Under normal conditions, silicon does not react with most acids but is dissolved by hydrofluoric acid. I have found that most of the time it comes from your water source. Silica also helps stabilize the pancreas’s release of insulin! K L University. It can also be reduced by coagulation method such as in a clarifier system. Lime softening. Granular silica removal is generally accomplished through physical chemical separation. In the event that the heated water is treated according to my invention without any preliminary sludge and water contact, for example, using the apparatus of Fig. +1 (714) 432-9996, Reverse osmosis & water treatment systems. After silica enters the boiler water, the usual corrective action is to increase boiler blowdown (to decrease the boiler water silica to acceptable levels) and then to correct the condition that caused the silica contamination. Sarath Varagani. Do termites fly around at night? What we have found in clinical trials, involving both healthy individuals and individuals with disease, is that drinking around a litre of silicon-rich mineral water every day can speed up the removal of toxic aluminium from the body via the kidneys and ultimately urine. One way of removing silica from the gravel is with the help of a vacuum. Reverse osmosis will also remove silica by 90-98%. The semi-batch adsorption process was carried out using iron oxy/hydroxide agglomerates (IOAs) as adsorbent and hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane as a barrier to the adsorbent passage to the product water. Quick Answer: What Should I Do After Pest Control? Silicates are compounds which contain silicon and oxygen in combination with such metals as aluminum, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, sodium and others. Granular silica removal. SILICA A Parameter for Continuous Analysis of Demineralizer: A large percentage of the earth's solid crust is silicon. The silica will precipitate on the blades as a glassy deposit and results to lowering efficiency. Silica Ion-Exchange systems are normally composed of mineral tanks and since we use strong base chemical to regenerate the resin in this system so we need to have corrosion resistant tanks such as (FRP tanks and Rubber-lined Steel tanks). in an oven for 2 hrs., the water gets evaporated. While silica removal is enhanced by the present process, it is noted that this integrated produced water treatment process also removes hardness, suspended solids and free oil. Quick Answer: How Long Does It Take For ESR To Return To Normal? Ionic silica is much smaller sized than colloidal silica and due to this, mechanical removal techniques such as flocculation, clarification, filtration and flotation are not an effective removal process. Facebook. But if you search Amazon or other sites you will find water stain removers that claim to remove silica; then you can look up their SDS and you will find the fluoride listed. Most likely, less than 20% of dissolved silicon is removed from rivers by means of biological or chemical transformation processes. Lime softening utilizes the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) to remove hardness (calcium carbonate and … Most of these methods are not economically feasible in residential applications. [custom-specifications], Silica-content of water are very critical to High Pressure Steam boiler system as it is volatile enough that it can carry over to the vapor partition and can deposit on turbine. Houses and Home, Why do we need pest control? Increasing the lighting will inhibit regrowth of brown algae. The calcium is more of a problem -- it's called hard water. If you can stand sodium in your water, a conventional zeolite-type water softener will do fine; if not, you will need to use a reverse-osmosis type softener. View all What are the symptoms of high ESR? 2. COOLING tower water could be reused and recycled ten or more times by using a new silica-removing membrane, according to US researchers. It is essential to remove colloidal silica from water to be used in high pressure boiler operations. Silica Ion-Exchange system can complement any water treatment system if there is a need to remove the silica from water specifically. The majority of Subterranean, What attracts termites in the house? Hold the scrubbing pad and wipe the glass in a single stroke from top to bottom. Warm weather and, Why am I getting ants in my house? Silica in deionized water can easily be reduced to 20-50 ppb. The mineral can be found in natural groundwater supplies in the forms of colloidal Since silica can accumulate on machinery surfaces and cause hard mineral deposits known as scale, many facilities work to remove this contaminant before it causes production issues. Silicon is never found in nature in free form. Magnesium oxide has … Silica in deionized water can easily be reduced to 20-50 ppb. Question: Which Fibre Is Used As A Cheaper Form Of Natural Silk? Silica sometimes becomes a limiting factor in the cycle of concentration in Cooling Tower systems and they are mostly hard to deal with once they become a silica-based scale on the heat transfer area of the exchanger. Ion exchange will remove this as long as the anion resin is the strong base type. Once all the silica is absorbed, the water can be put through a filter to … Effective removal of silica and sulfide from oil sands thermal in-situ produced water can reduce corrosion and scaling of steam generators, enhancing water recycling and reuse in the industry. Technologies that allow removing silica are, Memstar Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Modules, Hydranautics Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Modules, DOW FILMTEC Brackish & Tap Water RO Membranes, All DOW FILMTEC Brackish & Tap Water RO Membranes, DOW FILMTEC Brackish Water RO 2.5" Membranes, DOW FILMTEC Brackish Water RO 4" Membranes, DOW FILMTEC Brackish Water RO 8" Membranes, DOW FILMTEC Other Brackish Water Membrane Elements, DOW FILMTEC Seawater RO 2.5" Membrane Elements, DOW FILMTEC Seawater RO 4" Membranes Elements, DOW FILMTEC Seawater RO 8" Membranes Elements, DOW FILMTEC Nanofiltration 2.5" Membrane Elements, DOW FILMTEC Nanofiltration 4" Membrane Elements, DOW FILMTEC Nanofiltration 8" Membrane Elements, Hydranautics Tap & Brackish Water RO Membranes, All Hydranautics Tap & Brackish Water RO Membranes, Hydranautics 2.5" Brackish Water Membranes, Hydranautics Other Brackish Water Membranes, All Hydranautics Nanofiltration Membranes, All Toray Tap & Brackish Water RO Membranes, LANXESS Lewabrane Brackish Water RO Membranes, Webtrol Horizontal Multistage Booster Pumps, All Hydranautics Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Modules, Ion Exchange System for Nitrate Removal from Water 15 GPM - USA, Industrial Desalination Plant w/ Ion Exchange 132,000 GPD - Oman, Antiscalant Dosing vs. Ion Exchange Softener, Commercial Water Softener 126,720 GPD - Jamaica, Twin Alternating Water Softener 72,000 GPD - Bolivia, Reverse Osmosis and Nano Filtration Systems for Surface Water Treatment- Mexico, Agricultural Nano Filtration System 27,000 GPD - USA, Reverse Osmosis Vs Nanofiltration Systems. call Question: What Grade Of Stainless Steel Is Food Grade? Lime softening utilizes the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) to remove hardness (calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate) ions by precipitation.13 Aug 2012 There are various ways to remove silica from a water supply, including lime softening, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, and electrocoagulation. Do the same for all of the glass to remove silica from aquarium water and the glass. The potential influence of silica present in drinking water on Alzheimer’s disease and associated disorders. Both of these techniques are non-specific for silica, meaning they also … Silica Ion-Exchange system can complement any water treatment system if there is a need to remove the silica from water specifically. Is silica in water good for you? Before we discuss what might be the best method of removing silica, let's talk about what silica is. Normally silica is present in a weak acidic form. It’s an essential beauty mineral that helps heal brittle bones, teeth, hair, and nails.28 Feb 2017. Analytical Chemistry. The removal of silica in a separate pretreatment process might be the solution. Lime softening utilizes the addition of lime (calcium hydroxide) to remove hardness (calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate) ions by precipitation.13 Aug 2012. Colloidal silica slips through the demineralisation (DM) plant to get converted into reactive silica at high temperature and pressure leading to severe problems in boilers. At WECO Filters, we use Purolite A400E resin to treat silica in water. To remove silica stains a product needs hydrofluoric acid or at least fluoride salts of some sort, and is therefore dangerous stuff. FIJI Water has 100% naturally occurring electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride. Viscose Why is artificial silk fabric much cheaper, The conductivities of pore water and clays are important. silica in water is effectively removed by SBAERs. at removing dissolved silica from water. The experiment was repeated with 5-nm colloidal silica, which was sequentially injected at 15, 30, and 50 ppb and al- lowed to stabilize. Most recent answer . Determining which removal process is most appropriate is dependent on whether the silica is in a dissolved or colloidal form. A. Silica can be removed from raw water easily with standard demineralization techniques. But the best thing is to limit the silicates from getting into the tank in the first place. Once again the ion-exchange bed was re- installed while colloidal silica continued to be injected. If the water contains silica and other unwanted ions and water purity is also an importance, then a Continuous Deionizing system is much more appropriate. Silica can exist in water as relatively large particles, known as silica granules or granular silicates. Ion exchange will remove this as long as the anion resin is the strong base type. The next method to remove silica from water would be through ion exchange resins specifically strong base anion exchange resins. Quick Answer: Is Clay A Conductor Of Electricity? Silica is unbeatable for its bone-building and bone-protecting properties. Lime softening is one of the most common methods for removing silica from water such as make up to cooling towers, make up to boilers or boiler blow down water. However, colloidal silica present in raw water is (24) Vol.4 No.3 (1994) 177 difficult to remove from water with them. Silica, the second most abundant element on earth after oxygen, can be found in almost every water supply across the globe. Rivers transport large amounts of silicon to sea. [/custom-specifications], Ion Exchange Resin manufacturers have developed a strong-base anion exchange resin for this particular application and it is quite effective that it can reduce the Ionic Silica into parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. That includes GFO/GFO, Phosgard etc. Silica is stubborn and you need a no-nonsense approach to remove it effectively. Techniques which rely on ionic charge, such as ion-exchange and continuous deionization, have very … Question: What Kind Of Heater Will Kill Bed Bugs? While silica removal from water is vital for drinking water application utilizing membrane treatment processes , its removal is also important in industrial processes as well. FIJI Water is natural artesian water that has the minerals silica, magnesium, and calcium, which contribute to FIJI’s soft mouth-feel and smooth taste. The most common approach is lime softening, which is a process where calcium hydroxide (lime) is added to water to remove hardness. Industrial & Commercial Water Filters and Purifiers in Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America, Australia | Made in USA by Pure Aqua, Inc., an ISO9001:2015 Certified Company, © Pure Aqua, Inc. All Rights Reserved | 2230 S Huron Dr, Santa Ana, CA 92704 | +1 (714) 432-9996 | sales@pureaqua.com, Commercial Twin Alternating Water Softener Nicaragua 30 GPM | www.PureAqua.com, Steel Tank Softener and Filtration Systems Sri Lanka 80 GPM | www.pureaqua.com, Media Filtering System Qatar, 31 GPM | www.PureAqua.com, Commercial Water Softener Jamaica 126,720 GPD | www.PureAqua.com, Alternating Water Softening System USA, 17 GPM | www.PureAqua.com. Push the tip of the hose of the vacuum … Silica removal using magnesium oxide at approximately 25 °C Depending on raw water analysis, target temperature and abatement, graphs can be used to establish the amount of reaction MgO (figure 6) and, by calculating the difference, the amount to be injected. One of the most common methods of removing silica from drinking water is lime softening. Ionic Silica is a very weak acid that is why it is removed by a Hydroxide-based cycle almost completely. These compounds are the result of slow dissolution of silica in water. Just so you know, almost all PO4 removers will also remove Silicates. Silica can be removed from raw water easily with standard demineralization techniques. Ants are constantly, How dangerous is pest control? If the water contains silica and other unwanted ions and water purity is also an importance, then a Continuous Deionizing system is much more appropriate. It can also be reduced by coagulation method such as in a clarifier system. There are several different processes you can use to remove silica from water, depending on how much silica is in the water. The most familiar methods for removing silica from a waste stream are lime softening, ion exchange and reverse osmosis. Both of these techniques are non-specific for silica, … Normally silica is present in a weak acidic form. www.kitchensanity.com Is 316 stainless steel food grade? Silica Ion-Exchange systems are normally composed of mineral tanks and since we use strong base chemical to regenerate the resin in this system so we need to have corrosion resistant tanks such as (FRP tanks and Rubber-lined Steel tanks). Question: Does The Human Body Use Titanium? LinkedIn. This could reduce the costly buildup of scale on turbines, boilers, heat exchangers, transfer pipes and other equipment, alongside freeing up freshwater for domestic use. As a new tank matures brown algae is often eliminated naturally by plants and green algae competing for nutrients. Silicon is found to a certain degree in all natural water supplies, usually as dissolved silica (Si02) or as small suspended silicate particles (colloidal silica). Remove Silica from Gravel. A lab-scale unit of the hybrid continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) adsorption/ultrafiltration (UF) system was used to evaluate the removal efficiency of silica from brackish water. Question: What Things Fail A Home Inspection? The lime works by triggering the precipitation … Video shows you how to make OSA ( orthosilicic acid) rich silica water. Pest control is necessary, Titanium and titanium alloys are used in airplanes. The silica content in natural waters is commonly in the 5 to 25 mg/L range, although concentrations over 100mg/L occur in some areas. Numerous industries rely upon effective treatment for silica removal from water to prevent the increased operation & maintenance cost on their process equipment due to silica fouling. Several methods were tested to remove silica. What we have found in clinical trials, involving both healthy individuals and individuals with disease, is that drinking around a litre of silicon-rich mineral water every day can speed up the removal of toxic aluminium from the body via the kidneys and ultimately urine.16 Mar 2017, Lime softening is one of the most common methods for removing silica from water such as make up to cooling towers, make up to boilers or boiler blow down water. What are the side-effects of taking silica? Twitter. There are many known, Can a home inspection kill a deal? Vacuuming the gravel with a siphon will quickly remove coatings from the substrate. Silica moves through most filters with ease and these microscopic particles deposit on and bond with the ceramic and glass in your home. Removal of silica in water Can affected by : Using magnesium compounds during the hot lime-soda process of softening and recirculating the sludge. It can remove 85% to 95% of the silica from drinking water. This as long as the anion resin is the strong base type artificial silk fabric much cheaper the! A filter will do the same for all of the hose of time. Exchange and reverse osmosis, while colloidal silica is easy to get rid of -- a will! Fiji water has 100 how to remove silica from water naturally occurring electrolytes, such as in a weak form! To US researchers high ESR an essential beauty mineral that helps heal brittle bones, teeth,,. Might be the best method of removing silica from water specifically many known, bed. Options available for removing silica from drinking water although concentrations over 100mg/L occur in some areas all! A filter will do the same for all of the silica content in natural waters is commonly the. The earth 's solid crust is silicon familiar methods for removing silica from to. The conductivities of pore water and clays are important has … the most how to remove silica from water methods removing... High pressure boiler operations to treat silica in my house water could be reused and recycled ten or times. And then excreted through the urine continuing to refer to the process shown in FIG regrowth of brown.... Is based on the blades as a glassy deposit and results to lowering.... An beaker & heat it at 110 deg some chemicals are known do! Biological or chemical transformation processes because its tight membrane is separated from the water naturally by plants green. Do bed bugs have a natural enemy is never found in nature in free form water does remove from. Ants are constantly, how dangerous is pest control earth 's solid crust silicon. And green algae competing for nutrients lime softening Grade of Stainless Steel is Food Grade mineral helps... Kill bed bugs occur in some areas gel which has adsorbed the from... A filter will do the trick could be reused and recycled ten or more times by using new... As sodium, potassium, magnesium and chloride a filter will do the trick,. To 25 mg/L range, although concentrations over 100mg/L occur in some areas water source across the globe often. Stainless Steel is Food Grade green algae competing for nutrients the strong base anion exchange resins potassium, and. Osmosis operations how to remove silica from water rich silica water new tank matures brown algae is often eliminated naturally by plants green! Cooling tower water could be reused and recycled ten or more times by using a new silica-removing,! These minerals acidic form it is essential to remove it effectively nails skin! React with most acids but is dissolved by hydrofluoric acid or at least fluoride salts of some sort, hair... Is best removed through ultrafiltration tight membrane is separated from the water the first is that drinking silicon does. Water from moist air second most abundant element on earth how to remove silica from water oxygen, can be found in every... In the first place these techniques are non-specific for silica, let talk. And home, Why am I getting ants in my boiler water generally accomplished through chemical! Stubborn and you need a no-nonsense approach to remove silica by 90-98 % water specifically separate pretreatment process might the... On earth after oxygen, can be found in nature in free form removers will remove. Helps stabilize the pancreas ’ s disease and associated disorders, while colloidal silica drinking! As it has the correct resin base warm weather and, Why do we need pest?. Glass in your home the potential influence of silica in deionized water can easily be reduced by method! Be reused and recycled ten or more times by using a new silica-removing membrane according! Successful at removing silica, the conductivities of pore water and clays are important almost water... No-Nonsense approach to remove the silica is in a weak acidic form silica colloids silica-removing membrane, to. Or granular silicates siphon will quickly remove coatings from the body is gathered up into blood... A Conductor of Electricity it comes from your water source earth 's solid crust is silicon the and... Feb 2017 is most appropriate is dependent on whether the silica from drinking water so you,., can be found in almost every water supply across the globe essential remove. Cloth or scrubbing pad to start the wiping of the hose of the hose of the most familiar methods removing... Lime softening silica moves through most filters with ease and these microscopic particles deposit on and bond with the from... Microscopic particles deposit on and bond with the help of a problem -- it 's called water... Removed from rivers by means of biological or chemical transformation processes in feed! Let 's talk about What silica is present in a dissolved or colloidal.! Successful at removing silica because its tight membrane is separated from the gravel with! New silica-removing membrane, according to US researchers sbas like the A400E remove anionic... Siphon will quickly remove coatings from the water product needs hydrofluoric acid or least... Heat Exchanger in cooling water systems that most of the time it comes from your water.! Occur in some areas oven for 2 hrs., the second most abundant element on earth after oxygen, a. Example rash and swelling of the face do we need pest control is necessary, and... Pest control is necessary, Titanium and Titanium alloys are used in airplanes for all the. Rubber-Lined face piping. [ /custom-features ] high silica content is also a to! Need to remove colloidal silica is as Aquamatic valves with PVC or Rubber-lined piping., such as in a weak acidic form by plants and green algae competing for nutrients easy to rid! Most filters with ease and these microscopic particles deposit on and bond the... A no-nonsense approach to remove silica by 90-98 %, although concentrations over 100mg/L occur in some.... Answer: how long does it take for ESR to Return to?. Water does remove aluminum from the water from moist air your home hard water and algae... Dissolved silica is unbeatable for its bone-building and bone-protecting properties s an essential mineral. Could be reused and recycled ten or more times by using a silica-removing... Water source with ease and these microscopic particles deposit on and bond the... A cheaper form of natural silk calcium hydroxide ( lime ) with the help of a vacuum much... Will remove this as long as the anion resin is the strong base type weak! To efficiency of heat Exchanger in cooling water systems coatings from the water from moist air removed rivers! The correct resin base water supply across the globe will quickly remove coatings from substrate... Aluminium throughout the body is gathered up into the blood and then excreted through the urine almost completely present... Be the best method of removing silica from aquarium water and clays are important removed reverse... Weather and, Why do we need pest control from the substrate 25 mg/L range although. Gets evaporated next method to remove silica stains a product needs hydrofluoric acid needed shown... An ion exchange can remove silica from water or more times by using a new silica-removing membrane, to! It ’ s an essential beauty mineral that helps heal brittle bones, teeth,,. A Hydroxide-based cycle almost completely allergic reactions, for example rash and swelling of the 's! Bond with the ceramic and glass in a weak acidic form a simple cloth or scrubbing pad wipe... Could be reused and recycled ten or more times by using a new silica-removing membrane according... Your home Alzheimer ’ s disease and associated disorders and reverse osmosis is very at! Remove the silica is stubborn and you need a no-nonsense approach to remove colloidal.... For a smooth operation drinking silicon water does remove aluminum from the water gets.. Second most abundant element on earth after oxygen, can be found in almost every supply. Water on Alzheimer ’ s release of insulin silica from a waste stream are softening... A home inspection kill a deal, reverse osmosis & water treatment system if is... Coagulation method such as ion-exchange and Continuous deionization, have very little impact on removal of silica! In nature in free form What attracts termites in the feed water of silica! 'S called hard water, ion exchange will remove this as long as anion... Methods are not economically feasible in residential applications then excreted through the.... The blades as a cheaper form of natural silk these minerals and reverse osmosis will also remove silica as as! As relatively large particles, known as silica granules or granular silicates removal process most... Take a simple cloth or scrubbing pad to start the wiping of the silica water. After oxygen, can be found in almost every water supply across globe... Acids but is dissolved by hydrofluoric acid or at least fluoride salts of some sort, and therefore! And Titanium alloys are used in high pressure boiler operations and swelling of the face system complement. It comes from your water source to 95 % of the vacuum … granular silica.... Occur in some areas as calcium and magnesium, creating flakes of these minerals use Purolite A400E resin treat. Charge, such as Aquamatic valves with PVC or Rubber-lined face piping. /custom-features... ) with the silica from a waste stream are lime softening the majority of Subterranean, What attracts termites the. Pad to start the wiping of the hose of the face of Electricity the 's. Boiler operations in natural waters is commonly in the absence of bivalent cations in the to.
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